Pew Research CenterJune 22, 2016

Appendix A: Measures and scales

Thermometer ratings The survey measured ratings toward a number of groups and people in the U.S. on a “feeling thermometer” ranging from zero (“as cold and negative as possible”) to 100 (“as warm and positive as possible”), with 50 as the neutral point. See topline for full question wording. Throughout this report, ratings on the […]

Pew Research CenterJune 22, 2016


Survey conducted March 2-28, 2016 and April 5-May 2, 2016 The American Trends Panel (ATP), created by the Pew Research Center, is a nationally representative panel of randomly selected U.S. adults living in households. Respondents who self-identify as internet users and who provided an email address participate in the panel via monthly self-administered Web surveys, […]

Pew Research CenterJune 22, 2016

7. Partisan views of 2016 candidates, Barack and Michelle Obama, views of the election

Republicans and Democrats feel much more negatively toward the other’s party’s presumptive presidential nominees than they do toward members of the opposing party. (The surveys were conducted from early March through early May, before Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump effectively secured their party’s nominations.) Republicans’ views of Clinton – and Democrats’ views of Trump – […]

Pew Research CenterJune 22, 2016

6. How do the political parties make you feel?

Republicans and Democrats have strong negative reactions to the opposing party. Feelings of frustration are most common – 58% of Democrats and 57% of Republicans feel frustrated by the other party. But large shares also react with fear and anger toward the other party. A majority of Democrats (55%) say the GOP makes them feel […]

Pew Research CenterJune 22, 2016

5. Views of parties’ positions on issues, ideologies

Republicans and Democrats see little common ground between the two parties when it comes to issues, ideas and ideology. Majorities of partisans say the policy positions of the Republican and Democratic parties are very different, and neither Republicans nor Democrats say the other party has many good ideas. In general terms, both Republicans and Democrats […]

Pew Research CenterJune 22, 2016

4. Partisan stereotypes, views of Republicans and Democrats as neighbors

Many Republicans and Democrats associate negative characteristics with members of the other party – and positive traits with their own. But the specific criticisms Democrats and Republicans have of each other vary. And on several of these traits, a majority of partisans say Republicans and Democrats aren’t much different from the public as a whole. […]

Pew Research CenterJune 22, 2016

3. Partisan environments, views of political conversations and disagreements

For the most part, people have politically mixed friend groups, although both Republicans and Democrats are more likely to say they have a lot of friends from their own party than from the opposing party. The partisan diversity of people’s friend networks is linked to how people feel about the members of the other party, […]

Pew Research CenterJune 22, 2016

2. The roots of partisanship

Why do people choose to identify as a Republican or a Democrat? For Republicans, about as many (68%) cite as a major reason the harm that Democratic policies inflict on the country as cite the beneficial impact of GOP policies (64%). The balance of views among Democrats is only slightly more positive: 68% say a […]

Pew Research CenterJune 22, 2016

1. Feelings about partisans and the parties

Partisans’ dislike of the opposing party is part and parcel of American politics, but recent years have witnessed a growing intensity in these feelings. For the first time in more than two decades of Pew Research Center surveys, majorities of partisans have not only an unfavorable view of the other party, but a very unfavorable […]

Pew Research CenterJune 22, 2016

Partisanship and Political Animosity in 2016

The 2016 campaign is unfolding against a backdrop of intense partisan division and animosity. Partisans’ views of the opposing party are now more negative than at any point in nearly a quarter of a century.

Pew Research CenterApril 26, 2016

A Wider Ideological Gap Between More and Less Educated Adults

Two years ago, Pew Research Center found that Republicans and Democrats were more divided along ideological lines than at any point in the previous two decades. But growing ideological distance is not confined to partisanship. There are also growing ideological divisions along educational and generational lines.

Pew Research CenterMarch 31, 2016

Campaign Exposes Fissures Over Issues, Values and How Life Has Changed in the U.S.

The 2016 presidential campaign has exposed deep disagreements between – and within – the two parties on a range of major policy issues.

Pew Research CenterOctober 17, 2014

Political Polarization in Action: Insights into the 2014 Election from the American Trends Panel

Survey Report The Pew Research Center has developed a new tool for looking at the 2014 elections – a panel survey that enables us to check in with the same representative group of Americans several times during the course of the campaign. This survey includes far more information about respondents than is found in a […]

Pew Research CenterJune 12, 2014

Political Polarization in the American Public

Republicans and Democrats are more divided along ideological lines – and partisan acrimony is deeper and more extensive – than at any point in recent history. And these trends manifest themselves in myriad ways, both in politics and in everyday life.

Pew Research CenterJune 4, 2012

Partisan Polarization Surges in Bush, Obama Years

As Americans head to the polls this November, their values and basic beliefs are more polarized along partisan lines than at any point in the past 25 years. Unlike in 1987, when this series of surveys began, the values gap between Republicans and Democrats is now greater than gender, age, race or class divides. […]