Over the past decade, there has been a rise in mixed-mode surveys where multiple modes are used to contact and survey respondents. The increase in mixed-mode surveys has been driven by several factors, including declining response rates, coverage problems in single-mode surveys and the development of web surveys. Because there are now a variety of methods available, survey researchers can determine the best mode or combination of modes to fit the needs of each particular study and the population to be surveyed. However, when multiple modes are used for data collection, factors related to each mode, such as the presence of an interviewer and whether information is communicated aurally or visually, may affect how people respond.

Although the Pew Research Center primarily conducts telephone surveys, we also occasionally conduct mixed-mode surveys, where people are surveyed by more than one mode. For example, we have conducted mixed-mode surveys of foreign policy experts and journalists where respondents can complete the survey via the web or by telephone.

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